Mathias Lang

BEng Renewable and Sustainable Engineering.
BEng Ynni Adnewyddadwy A Pheirianneg Gynaliadwy.

An investigation of CCS technologies and their ability to combat climate change.

Ymchwiliad i dechnolegau CCS a'u gallu i fynd i'r afael â newid yn yr hinsawdd.

Despite various political commitments such as the Paris Agreement and related
regulations, more carbon emissions are being emitted every year. Potential savings
opportunities such as reductions in energy consumption or reforestation on a global scale
cannot achieve significant emission reductions on their own. That is why the use of carbon
capture technologies is urgently needed to curb rising emissions and enable a transformation
of the energy, industry and transport sectors towards clean energies.
Three process-integrated carbon capture technologies and Direct Air Capture are critically
examined. This also includes the transport, utilisation and storage of the captured CO2.The
literature review shows significant differences between the technologies in terms of retrofit
capability, capture rates and energy consumption, as well as difficulties of long-term storage
in geological formations. The analysis of the UK and global CCS projects shows the current
focus, which is primarily on the decarbonisation of the energy sector. Based on the research,
five points were identified as key factors that are crucial for the deployment of CCS.
Potential emission reductions for process-integrated CCS as a retrofit of coal and
gas-fired power plants and cement factories are determined to achieve 7.706 - 9.062 GtCO2.
For the deployment of Direct Air Capture (DAC), a bottom-up model with different scenarios
is used to determine the potential growth and emission savings of the technology. In the
Best-Case-Scenario DAC growth to a total installed capacity of 21.13 and 39.32 GtCO2/year
in 2050 and 2075 respectively. The calculated emission reductions show that carbon capture
technologies can achieve significant emission reductions. DAC was identified as the
technology with the highest potential to combat climate change as it is the only one that can
decarbonise the atmosphere to pre-industrial levels and can be used regardless of the
emission source.

Er gwaethaf ymrwymiadau gwleidyddol amrywiol fel y Cytundeb Paris a rheoliadau cysylltiedig, mae mwy o allyriadau carbon yn cael eu gollwng bob blwyddyn. Ni all cyfleoedd cynilo posibl fel lleihau'r defnydd o ynni neu ail-goedwig ar raddfa fyd-eang sicrhau gostyngiadau sylweddol mewn allyriadau ar eu pen eu hunain. Dyna pam mae angen defnyddio technolegau dal carbon ar frys i leihau allyriadau cynyddol a galluogi trawsnewid y sectorau ynni, diwydiant a thrafnidiaeth tuag at ynni glân. Mae tair technoleg dal carbon wedi’i integreiddio mewn proses a Dal Aer Uniongyrchol yn cael eu harchwilio'n feirniadol. Mae hyn hefyd yn cynnwys cludo, defnyddio a storio'r CO2 a gipiwyd. Mae'r adolygiad o lenyddiaeth yn dangos gwahaniaethau sylweddol rhwng y technolegau o ran gallu ôl-ffitio, cyfraddau dal a defnyddio ynni, yn ogystal ag anawsterau storio hirdymor mewn ffurfiannau daearegol. Mae'r dadansoddiad o brosiectau CCS y DU a'r CCS byd-eang yn dangos y ffocws presennol, sy'n ymwneud yn bennaf â datgarboneiddio'r sector ynni. Yn seiliedig ar yr ymchwil, nodwyd pum pwynt fel ffactorau allweddol sy'n hanfodol ar gyfer defnyddio CCS. Pennir bod gostyngiadau posibl mewn allyriadau ar gyfer CCS wedi’i integreiddio mewn proses fel ôl-ffitio gweithfeydd pŵer glo a nwy a ffatrïoedd sment yn cyflawni 7.706 - 9.062 GtCO2. Ar gyfer defnyddio Dal Aer Uniongyrchol (DAC), defnyddir model o'r gwaelod i fyny gyda senarios gwahanol i bennu twf posibl ac arbedion allyriadau'r dechnoleg. Yn y Senario Gorau Posibl fe wnaeth twf DAC i gyfanswm osod 21.13 a 39.32 GtCO2/blwyddyn yn 2050 a 2075 yn y drefn honno. Mae'r gostyngiadau mewn allyriadau a gyfrifwyd yn dangos y gall technolegau dal carbon leihau allyriadau'n sylweddol. Nodwyd mai DAC oedd y dechnoleg sydd â'r potensial mwyaf i fynd i'r afael â newid yn yr hinsawdd gan mai dyma'r unig un sy'n gallu datgarboneiddio'r awyrgylch i lefelau cyn-ddiwydiannol a gellir ei ddefnyddio waeth beth fo'r ffynhonnell allyriadau.