Maria Peis

BEng Renewable & Sustainable Engineering
BEng Ynni Adnewyddadwy A Pheirianneg Gynaliadwy

The potential of Power to Gas for excess renewable energy.

Potensial Pŵer i Nwy ar gyfer ynni adnewyddadwy gormodol.

This report analyses the potential of Power to Gas concerning surplus renewable energy. For this purpose, the different technologies for converting electricity into the gaseous energy carriers hydrogen and methane and the subsequent storage are considered. Furthermore, various application paths are examined, and the potential of the energy carriers in the energy supply systems is assessed. After considering the possible pathways, the technology is analysed in terms of efficiency, costs, economic viability, and political aspects. These results are compared with existing projects and integrated into a cost example. Finally, the impact of PtG on the environment and emissions in terms of a renewable energy supply are analysed. It becomes clear that PtG can reduce emissions by up to 80% compared to fossil fuels. The potential of PtG for a renewable energy supply is high, but the technology still needs to improve in terms of costs and efficiency. Only when the production costs of renewable methane and hydrogen are comparable to conventional production costs, renewable energy carriers and PtG will be used on an industrial basis. A cost reduction of up to 70% is predicted by 2050, but without political intervention, PtG will not be able to compete with fossil fuels in terms of cost.

Mae'r adroddiad hwn yn dadansoddi potensial Pŵer i Nwy sy'n ymwneud ag ynni adnewyddadwy dros ben. I'r diben hwn, mae’r gwahanol dechnolegau ar gyfer trosi trydan yn hydrogen a methan y cludwyr ynni nwyol a'r storfa ddilynol yn cael eu hystyried. At hynny, mae gwahanol lwybrau cymhwyso’n cael eu harchwilio, ac mae potensial y cludwyr ynni yn y systemau cyflenwi ynni yn cael ei asesu. Ar ôl ystyried y llwybrau posibl, dadansoddir y dechnoleg o ran effeithlonrwydd, costau, hyfywedd economaidd ac agweddau gwleidyddol. Mae’r canlyniadau hyn yn cael eu cymharu â phrosiectau sy'n bodoli eisoes a'u hintegreiddio mewn enghraifft o gost. Yn olaf, dadansoddir effaith PtG ar yr amgylchedd ac allyriadau o ran cyflenwad ynni adnewyddadwy. Daw'n amlwg y gall PtG leihau allyriadau hyd at 80% o'i gymharu â thanwydd ffosil. Mae potensial PtG ar gyfer cyflenwad ynni adnewyddadwy yn uchel, ond mae angen i'r dechnoleg wella o hyd o ran costau ac effeithlonrwydd. Dim ond pan fydd costau cynhyrchu methan adnewyddadwy a hydrogen yn debyg i gostau cynhyrchu confensiynol y bydd cludwyr ynni adnewyddadwy a PtG ar sail ddiwydiannol yn cael eu defnyddio. Rhagwelir gostyngiad mewn costau o hyd at 70% erbyn 2050, ond heb ymyrraeth wleidyddol, ni fydd PtG yn gallu cystadlu â thanwydd ffosil o ran cost.